Pete Bray Music

I'm a guitar tutor, composer, session musician and writer from Essex. Lessons available contact me for information.
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This week’s music is Three Views of a Secret by Jaco Pastorius.

I decided to do something a little different with this one as my electric guitar amp had gone kaput! A little slide guitar on my acoustic seemed like the right thing to do to mix thing up a little.

As far as this song goes it has a meandering feel by changing keys twice but still drives forward with it’s 3/4 time signature. I would definately suggest listening to the Weather report version of this song if you’re going to attempt it in a band or the big band version if you just want to hear the definitive version for fun!

Only one video this week and it’s Watermelon Man by Herbie Hancock.

This is a pretty easy tune that is essentially a blues in F with the last chord  progression being C7 - Bb7 repeated. Suggested scales if you’d like to play a solo yourself are:

F Minor Pentatonic

F Major Pentatonic

The relevant Mixolydian mode for each Chord (F7, Bb7 & C7)

At one point or another I’m using all of these and trying my best not to think about it.

I uploaded a new song to YouTube and it is Mercy, Mercy, Mercy by Cannonball Adderley (written by Joe Zawinul). It’s a fairly easy song as there’s not any weird “out” chords or changes, just some jazzy jamming in Bb.

I mostly used Bb Pentatonic or Bb Mixolydian for the solo with some chromatic notes thrown in for a bit of funkiness.

I’ve started uploading videos of me playing guitar! I’m starting with my rendition of Robben Ford’s Revelation. This was fun to play, wish I had that would indulge me!

In lieu of an article this week I thought I’d post some music I really like. This is Red Baron by Billy Cobham.

The chords to this tune are pretty much Gm7/C7(9) throughout most of the verses and all of the solos. There’s an Eb7b5 and Db7b5 at the end of the verse too but they aren’t used for the solos (you’ll hear them, they’re pretty distinct.

As far as soloing over this goes you can hear some great examples in the video above: you can keep it simple with G Minor Pentatonic/Blues scale, add some Dorian for a bit more jazzy flavour or even add some diminished over the 4th/8th bar to lead back to the G Minor 7th chord. In that case I’d use the C Diminished scale as the IVdim chord leads nicely back to the Im chord.

There’s plenty of backing tracks for this song on YouTube if you wanted to try your hand at it and the melody is pretty easy to find too (hint: do a Google image search!), at least compared to Crosswind which I’d LOVE to have a copy of!

So you’ve got your little melody/rhythm/chord change that you think can be further expanded upon into a full length song. Great! But you don’t know where to go next? Try some of these ideas.

Chord Progressions

The following are sets of chords that are mostly derived from the C Major scale. Terms such as I – IV – V refer to the 1st, 4th and 5th degrees of the chosen scale with diatonic 3rds stacked on top of them to create chords. If you have any trouble with this theory let me know and I’ll gladly do a lesson on it.

Over the years some chord progressions have prevailed as more popular than others. The following are just a small selection or examples you could use.

I – IV – V:

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Seen in most blues music it is arguably the most popular chord progression around, Listen to Crossroads by Cream and you’ll notice the only chords used are the Dominant (7th) versions of I – IV – V in the key of A.

II – V – I

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The most popular progression for Jazz, just listen to Autumn Leaves or Fly Me To The Moon and you’ll hear nothing but a series of II – V- I chords! Some songs will rock between the II – V for a long time before going to the I. Billy Cobham’s Red Baron can be seen as a constant series of II – V's in F Major. However, F is never played meaning that G minor 7 is heard as the de facto I chord throughout the song.

I – VI – IV – V

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The four chord song is a much parodied song structure but still has relevance today with songs such as Baby and Every Breath You Take using the sequence. The I – VI – IV – V Progression became popular in the 50’s as watching Back to the Future will show you: it’s the chord sequence in Earth Angel (also, Johnny B. Goode is a I – IV – V progression in B Flat, not B like Marty says).

Try putting these sets of chords into your songs by changing the key signature and seeing how they fit. For example a I – VI – IV – V in G Major would be:

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And the same in G Minor would be:

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Did you notice that the last chord was a D7 instead of a Dm? This is called a substitution and is used to create a little bit more tension to bring us back to the I chord that the diatonic V chord doesn’t provide. As a result the sequence would be written out at I – VI – IV - V7. Substitutions are a lesson all on their own but remembering their purpose and what chord has been substituted make using and understanding them a lot easier.

That’s all for this lesson, next time we’ll look at how to make a melody work and not sound like a jumbled mess.

Another section from a song I’m writing. This one is in 13/8 for the most part, but I count it in alternating bars of 6/8 and then 7/8 so my head doesn’t explode!

This is a small section of a song I’m writing for my album. It’s tricky because of the odd meter, but a lot of fun to play! I made this for my better students to practice without the solo and then did a separate one where I get to shred!

Songwriting can be a difficult process and I have often found it the hardest subject to teach in lessons. It can’t be quantified as easily as learning a chord or scale which has a clear beginning (you didn’t know the thing) and a clear end (now you know the thing) whereas in writing a song you only have a beginning (you don’t have a song) or an end (you do have a song). Songwriting is all about implementation; how will you use the tools you have learned to create something bigger than the sum of its parts?


Before we go into actually making a song I would like to address a few things that I find get in the way when trying  to write and some ways I’ve found to get around them.


Not Knowing Where To Start is usually the place most novices to writing can fall down. It’s not surprising: if you’ve never done something before you can’t be expected to be able to do it right off the bat! My first advice for this is to just play. If you have the ability to improvise to any level just pick up your instrument and play whatever. Eventually you should find something that sticks, something you like to play again and again. This is the beginning of a song, write it down! Even if you can’t write music you should write down something that will remind you later what to play.


If you can’t improvise or lack the confidence to just play something then the other way around this is to learn a song that you like and when I say learn i mean really learn it. Learn all the parts: bass, guitar, drums, keys, singer (if it’s a pop song) and try to work out what they’re doing in relation to each other. For example: the bass may stay on one note while the guitar plays a chord, the singer sings a melody that goes up and the piano plays a melody that goes down. The drums are a little bit more archaic for non-drummers to work out but listen to them! Do they repeat the same every bar? Every 4 bars? Do they follow the singer or a different instrument?


Writer’s Block is often cited as the reason many people find songwriting hard, I have certainly had it before and it can be very annoying! I must be said that it takes a number of different forms and, in my experience at least, a true lack of any creative ideas whatsoever is very rare. Often I come up with ideas that just don’t match the sounds I have in my head and I attribute this to a writer’s block, of sorts. In these situations I will:


  • Listen to some music that sounds like what I am trying to write.

  • Play some music that is similar to what I am trying to write.

  • Analyse some music that is similar to what I want to achieve.

  • Watch T.V.

  • Play computer games

  • Talk to my girlfriend

  • Listen, play or analyse some music that has nothing to do with what I want to achieve.


Getting some time away from your craft is usually the best bet, it helps you to relax and you can come back with a fresh mind. However, this is not always possible in situations such as when you are on a deadline. At these times actively immersing yourself in some music can really help to bring new ideas into your writing that you might not have otherwise had.


Next time we will look at some common structures in music, where they crop up and how to use them.


— PB

In this lesson we’re going to be looking at tuplets, specifically triplets and quintuplets. Firstly, a tuplet is an irrational grouping of rhythms, for example fitting three notes where there should be two is a tuplet called a triplet.

In Ex.5 we have a bar of quaver triplets meaning that for every beat of the pulse we have three quavers, squeezing three where there should be two. Try clapping the rhythm first before trying it on the guitar, make sure you’ve got three notes per beat, not two. Count the pulse with your feet, or use a metronome, to make sure you don’t go out of time.

Ex.6 has an interesting idea where we are now playing crotchet triplets. This is tricky because you miss the two and the four beats. Focus on hitting the one and the three with the first beat in each group of triplets and use your feet or metronome to keep you in time. Once you have this down, try adding a simple chord to this rhythm.

Ex.7 takes an A5 power chord and applies the triplet rhythm and the pulse to it. Start slow using a fingers or hybrid picking to pluck the notes. Ex.8 is the same idea but the triplets are on the bass strings and the melody (if you can call it that) is on the treble strings.

Finally we have the hardest idea so far: Ex.9 and Ex.10 both use quintuplets to make an even stranger sound than triplets because we are squeezing in five quavers where there should be four. The counting for this group of notes is strange, but I find it useful:

Ta - Ka - Ta - Ka - Da

This comes from an Indian form of vocal rhythms that apply syllables to different beats. I find it easier than counting from one to five. You could also use:

Sit - ting - El - E - Phant

Or any other five syllable phrase or sentence.

Groups of five don’t appear too much in western music but Bumblefoot and Shawn Lane are two examples of players who use them masterly. When you practice these examples start slow, just clapping until you get a real feel for it. Once you have that move on to the guitar using single notes and then later chords.

That should keep you busy for a while, good luck I’ll be back with more soon!image